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Our mission in life is not to change the world, our mission is to change ourselves
 
 
پنجشنبه 25 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
OPINIONAPPEARANCEAGECOLORORIGINMATERIAL

good

bad

beautiful

ugly

smart 

dumb

usually follows this order:

 

size/measure

big

small

high

low

 

shape

round

circular

square

 

condition

broken

cracked

ripped

fresh

rotten

new

antique

old

young

two-year-old*

red

purple

pink

dark green

navy blue

Korean

Chinese

French

Italian

American

iron

brass

cotton

gold

wooden

vegetable

 

 
Some examples:

I want to buy a beautiful, newblueEuropean car.

1.  Aunt Betty wants a square, gray, stone coffee table. 

2.  The king took an exhausting, 2-week trip.

*exhausting refers to opinion

3.  These are delicious, huge, chocolate chip cookies!

*chocolate chip refers to a material used to make the cookies

4.  Alice prefers black, Italian, leather furniture.

5.  Archeologists get very excited when they find large, prehistoric, animal bones.

*prehistoric refers to age

Note: Adding adjectives is very important if you want to make your writing more interesting.  It helps the reader/listener form a picture in his/her mind.(like the examples mentioned above)





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سه شنبه 23 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
 Speech is the origin of how language is expressed and a speaker is someone who delivers a speech often to an assembled audience. There is a place in London where every Sunday people stand up on a wooden box and proceed to speak about any issue they choose and if they get a crowd to listen to them or in some cases laugh or jeer at them, they are quite happy to get a reaction.

This particular spot is called appropriately enough: Speakers' Corner. 'Speak' is therefore the starting point suggesting putting words in some coherent order and then saying them out loud. We say: I understand she speaks several foreign languages. Have you noticed that he speaks with an Australian accent? People were booing while the minister was speaking at the meeting. There is a sense of formality, if you like, about 'speak' It's the starting point of making intelligible noises that other people can understand.

'Talk' on the other hand is the informal one. This suggests an open two way method of communication. Let's contrast these two one with another: I want to speak to you and I want to talk to you. When someone addresses you with the former(speak), it's probably something formal and serious -- The boss wants to say something about your work and it's probably not favorable. On the other hand the latter(talk) is much friendlier because the indication is that someone wants to have a conversation with you.

Similarly you would go to listen to a speech delivered in a hall at a seminar in a college but you would go to the local village hall to listen to a talk (with possibly picture slides) given by a local birdwatcher about some of the birds that you can see in the area. When someone doesn't like the way you say things either in the type of language or the topics, do they say: I wish you wouldn't speak like that in front of your old aunt or I wish you wouldn't talk like that in front of your old aunt? I have to tell you in all honesty,and I bet you would agree with me,you can say either.
Thank you 4 reading.
Good Luck friends.




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دوشنبه 22 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری

Ought to

Ought is a modal auxiliary verb. There is no –s in the third person singular.

  • She ought to understand. (NOT She oughts to …)

Ought is different from other auxiliary verbs. It is used with to

  • We ought to respect our parents.
  • We ought to help the poor.

Note that to is dropped in question tags.

  • You ought to love your country, ought not you?(NOT…ought not you to.)

Ought does not have infinitives (to ought) or participles (oughting, oughted). Questions and negatives are made without do.

  • Ought we to help them? (NOT Do we ought to …)
  • You ought not to go now.

Ought is rarely used in questions and negatives; should is generally used instead. A structure with think … ought is also common.

  • We ought to help them, shouldn’t we? (More natural than ought not we?)
  • Do you think I ought to consult a doctor? (More natural than Ought I to consult a doctor?)
  • Should we tell her? (Less formal than Ought we to tell her?)

Ought: Meaning

Ought expresses duty, necessity, desirability and similar ideas. It is often used to advise people – to tell them that they have a duty to do things. The meaning is similar to should

  • You ought to attend office regularly. (Duty)
  • We ought to help the needy. (Moral obligation)
  • We ought to buy some furniture. (Necessity)

Ought is not as forceful as must.





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شنبه 20 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری

In conversation both words, too and also, are used interchangeably with the sense of “in addition”:

Our friends went too.
Our friends went also.

In such a sentence the too at the end is felt to be more natural than the also. The word also is more likely to go before the verb:

Our friends also went.

The use of too in the sense of “in addition” is not confined to the end of a sentence:

I, too, believe that children are more intelligent than they are given credit for.

They, too, wanted to see the movie.

The word too can be used to modify adjectives:
This coffee is too hot to drink. Here the sense of too is “to a higher degree than is desirable.”

The word also can have the meaning “in the same manner as something else.”

Few young people read Scott anymore. George Eliot is also neglected in today’s school curriculum.

In conversation it doesn’t matter whether you use too or also, or where either falls in the sentence.

In writing it’s a good idea to give some thought to how the words are being used, and to how often you use them.

Here, from my trusty Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus, are some alternatives for too and also used with the meaning “in addition”:

as well
besides
in addition
additionally
furthermore,
further
moreover
into the bargain
on top of that
what’s more
to boot
equally





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سه شنبه 16 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری

Which of these expressions should you use: is one of them less acceptable than the others?

Do you ever get bored with eating out all the time?
Delegates were bored by the lectures.
He grew bored of his day job.
 
The first two constructions, bored with and bored by, are the standard ones. The third, bored of, is more recent than the other two and it’s become extremely common. In fact, the Oxford English Corpus contains almost twice as many instances of bored of than bored by. It represents a perfectly logical development of the language, and was probably formed on the pattern of expressions such as tired of or weary of. Nevertheless, some people dislike it and it’s not fully accepted in standard English. It’s best to avoid using it in formal writing.





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شنبه 13 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Many English learners included me, have problem in using "Comma" in the suitable place in a sentence. Below, you can see the usages of "Comma". 
1

Use a comma to separate the elements in a series (three or more things), including the last two. "He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base." 

2

Use a comma + a little conjunction (and, but, for, nor, yet, or, so) to connect two independent clauses, as in "He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base."

Contending that the coordinating conjunction is adequate separation, some writers will leave out the comma in a sentence with short, balanced independent clauses (such as we see in the example just given). If there is ever any doubt, however, use the comma, as it is always correct in this situation.

3

Use a comma to set off introductory elements, as in "Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked."

It is permissible to omit the comma after a brief introductory element if the omission does not result in confusion or hesitancy in reading. If there is ever any doubt, use the comma, as it is always correct

4

Use a comma to set off parenthetical elements, as in "The Founders Bridge, which spans the Connecticut River, is falling down." By "parenthetical element," we mean a part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the essential meaning of that sentence. The parenthetical element is sometimes called "added information." This is the most difficult rule in punctuation because it is sometimes unclear what is "added" or "parenthetical" and what is essential to the meaning of a sentence.

Appositives are almost always treated as parenthetical elements.

  • Calhoun's ambition, to become a goalie in professional soccer, is within his reach.
  • Eleanor, his wife of thirty years, suddenly decided to open her own business.

An adverbial clause that begins a sentence is set off with a comma:

  • Although Queasybreath had spent several years in Antarctica, he still bundled up warmly in the brisk autumns of Ohio.
  • Because Tashonda had learned to study by herself, she was able to pass the entrance exam.

When an adverbial clause comes later on in the sentence, however, the writer must determine if the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence or not. A "because clause" can be particularly troublesome in this regard. In most sentences, a "because clause" is essential to the meaning of the sentence, and it will not be set off with a comma:

  • The Okies had to leave their farms in the midwest because the drought conditions had ruined their farms.

Sometimes, though, the "because clause" must be set off with a comma to avoid misreading:

  • I knew that President Nixon would resign that morning, because my sister-in-law worked in the White House and she called me with the news.

Without that comma, the sentence says that Nixon's resignation was the fault of my sister-in-law. Nixon did not resign because my sister-in-law worked in the White House, so we set off that clause to make the meaning clearly parenthetical.

When a parenthetical element — an interjection, adverbial modifier, or even an adverbial clause — follows a coordinating conjunction used to connect two independent clauses, we do not put a comma in front of the parenthetical element.

  • The Red Sox were leading the league at the end of May, but of course, they always do well in the spring. [no comma after "but"]
  • The Yankees didn't do so well in the early going, but frankly, everyone expects them to win the season. [no comma after "but"]
  • The Tigers spent much of the season at the bottom of the league, and even though they picked up several promising rookies, they expect to be there again next year. [no comma after "and"]

(This last piece of advice relies on the authority of William Strunk's Elements of Style. Examples our own.)

When both a city's name and that city's state or country's name are mentioned together, the state or country's name is treated as a parenthetical element.

  • We visited Hartford, Connecticut, last summer.
  • Paris, France, is sometimes called "The City of Lights."

When the state becomes a possessive form, this rule is no longer followed:

  • Hartford, Connecticut's investment in the insurance industry is well known.

Also, when the state or country's name becomes part of a compound structure, the second comma is dropped:

  • Heublein, a Hartford, Connecticut-based company, is moving to another state.

An absolute phrase is always treated as a parenthetical element, as is an interjection. An addressed person's name is also always parenthetical. Be sure, however, that the name is that of someone actually being spoken to. A separate section on Vocatives, the various forms that a parenthetical element related to an addressed person's name can take, is also available.

  • Their years of training now forgotten, the soldiers broke ranks.
  • Yes, it is always a matter, of course, of preparation and attitude.
  • I'm telling you, Juanita, I couldn't be more surprised. (I told Juanita I couldn't be more surprised. [no commas])
  • 5

    Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives. You could think of this as "That tall, distinguished, good looking fellow" rule (as opposed to "the little old lady"). If you can put an and or a but between the adjectives, a comma will probably belong there. For instance, you could say, "He is a tall and distinguished fellow" or "I live in a very old and run-down house." So you would write, "He is a tall, distinguished man" and "I live in a very old, run-down house." But you would probably not say, "She is a little and old lady," or "I live in a little and purple house," so commas would not appear between little and old or between little and purple.


    6

    Use a comma to set off quoted elements. Because we don't use quoted material all the time, even when writing, this is probably the most difficult rule to remember in comma usage. It is a good idea to find a page from an article that uses several quotations, photocopy that page, and keep it in front of you as a model when you're writing. Generally, use a comma to separate quoted material from the rest of the sentence that explains or introduces the quotation:

    • Summing up this argument, Peter Coveney writes, "The purpose and strength of the romantic image of the child had been above all to establish a relation between childhood and adult consciousness."

    If an attribution of a quoted element comes in the middle of the quotation, two commas will be required. But be careful not to create a comma splice in so doing.

    • "The question is," said Alice, "whether you can make words mean so many things."
    • "I should like to buy an egg, please," she said timidly. "How do you sell them?"

    Be careful not to use commas to set off quoted elements introduced by the word that or quoted elements that are embedded in a larger structure:

    • Peter Coveney writes that "[t]he purpose and strength of . . ."
    • We often say "Sorry" when we don't really mean it.

    And, instead of a comma, use a colon to set off explanatory or introductory language from a quoted element that is either very formal or long (especially if it's longer than one sentence):

    • Peter Coveney had this to say about the nineteenth-century's use of children
      in fiction: "The purpose and strength of . . .
    • 7

      Use commas to set off phrases that express contrast.

      • Some say the world will end in ice, not fire.
      • It was her money, not her charm or personality, that first attracted him.
      • The puppies were cute, but very messy.

      (Some writers will leave out the comma that sets off a contrasting phrase beginning with but.)

      8

      Use a comma to avoid confusion. This is often a matter of consistently applying rule #3.

      • For most the year is already finished.
      • For most, the year is already finished.

      • Outside the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches.
      • Outsidethe lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches.

    I have spent most of the day putting in a comma and the rest of the day taking it out.

    — Oscar Wilde

    9

    Grammar English's Famous Rule of Punctuation: Never use only one comma between a subject and its verb. "Believing completely and positively in oneself is essential for success." [Although readers might pause after the word "oneself," there is no reason to put a comma there.]

    10

    Typographical Reasons: Between a city and a state [Hartford, Connecticut], a date and the year [June 15, 1997], a name and a title when the title comes after the name [Bob Downey, Professor of English], in long numbers [5,456,783 and $14,682], etc. Although you will often see a comma between a name and suffix — Bob Downey, Jr., Richard Harrison, III — this comma is no longer regarded as necessary by most copy editors, and some individuals — such as Martin Luther King Jr. — never used a comma there at all.

    Note that we use a comma or a set of commas to make the year parenthetical when the date of the month is included:

    • July 4, 1776, is regarded as the birth date of American liberty.

    Without the date itself, however, the comma disappears:

    • July 1776 was one of the most eventful months in our history.

    In international or military format, no commas are used:

    • The Declaration of Independence was signed on 4 July 1776.
    11
    Use Commas With Caution

    As you can see, there are many reasons for using commas, and we haven't listed them all. Yet the biggest problem that most students have with commas is their overuse. Some essays look as though the student loaded a shotgun with commas and blasted away. Remember, too, that a pause in reading is not always a reliable reason to use a comma. Try not to use a comma unless you can apply a specific rule from this page to do so.

    Concentrating on the proper use of commas is not mere form for form's sake. Indeed, it causes writers to review their understanding of structure and to consider carefully how their sentences are crafted.

    If you like to test yourself, click HERE  

    Source: www.grammar.ccc.commnet.edu











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دوشنبه 8 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Here's a PDF file that could help you a lot with your business vocabulary.
If you want to Download, click  HERE




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دوشنبه 8 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری


  1. The most common letter in English is "e".

  2. The most common vowel in English is "e", followed by "a".

  3. The most common consonant in English is "r", followed by "t".

  4. Every syllable in English must have a vowel (sound). Not all syllables have consonants. 

  5. Only two English words in current use end in "-gry". They are "angry" and "hungry".

  6. The word "bookkeeper" (along with its associate "bookkeeping") is the only unhyphenated English word with three consecutive double letters. Other such words, like "sweet-toothed", require a hyphen to be readily readable.

  7. The word "triskaidekaphobia" means "fear of Friday the 13th". It also means "superstition about the number thirteen" in general.

  8. More English words begin with the letter "s" than with any other letter.

  9. preposition is always followed by a noun (ie noun, proper noun, pronoun, noun group, gerund).

  10. The word "uncopyrightable" is the longest English word in normal use that contains no letter more than once.

  11. A sentence that contains all 26 letters of the alphabet is called a "pangram".

  12. The following sentence contains all 26 letters of the alphabet: "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog." This sentence is often used to test typewriters or keyboards.

  13. The only word in English that ends with the letters "-mt" is "dreamt" (which is a variant spelling of "dreamed") - as well of course as "undreamt" :)

  14. A word formed by joining together parts of existing words is called a "blend" (or, less commonly, a "portmanteau word"). Many new words enter the English language in this way. Examples are "brunch" (breakfast + lunch); "motel" (motorcar + hotel); and "guesstimate" (guess + estimate). Note that blends are not the same as compounds or compound nouns, which form when two whole words join together, for example: website, blackboard, darkroom.

  15. The word "alphabet" comes from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet: alpha, bēta.

  16. The dot over the letter "i" and the letter "j" is called a "superscript dot".

  17. In normal usage, the # symbol has several names, for example: hash, pound sign, number sign.

  18. In English, the @ symbol is usually called "the at sign" or "the at symbol".

  19. If we place a comma before the word "and" at the end of a list, this is known as an "Oxford comma" or a "serial comma". For example: "I drink coffee, tea, and wine."

  20. Some words exist only in plural form, for example: glasses (spectacles), binoculars, scissors, shears, tongs, gallows, trousers, jeans, pants, pyjamas (but note that clothing words often become singular when we use them as modifiers, as in "trouser pocket").

  21. The shortest complete sentence in English is the following. "I am."

  22. The word "Checkmate" in chess comes from the Persian phrase "Shah Mat" meaning "the king is helpless". 

  23. We pronounce the combination "ough" in 9 different ways, as in the following sentence which contains them all: "A rough-coated, dough-faced, thoughtful ploughman strode through the streets of Scarborough; after falling into a slough, he coughed and hiccoughed." 
    Download

  24. The longest English word without a true vowel (a, e, i, o or u) is "rhythm".

  25. The only planet not named after a god is our own, Earth. The others are, in order from the Sun, Mercury, Venus, [Earth,] Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.

  26. There are only 4 English words in common use ending in "-dous": hazardous, horrendous, stupendous, and tremendous.

  27. We can find 10 words in the 7-letter word "therein" without rearranging any of its letters: the, there, he, in, rein, her, here, ere, therein, herein.

The following sentence contains 7 identical words in a row and still makes sense. "It is true for allthat that that that that that that refers to is not the same that that that that refers to." (= It is true for all that, that that "that" which that "that" refers to is not the same "that" which that "that" refers to.)

Itistrueforallthatthatthatthatthatthatthat
     pronounconjunctiondeterminernounrelative pronoundeterminernoun
       (adjective)"that"which(adjective)"that"



referstoisnotthesamethatthatthatthatrefersto.
      nounrelative pronoundeterminernoun  
      "that"which(adjective)"that"  

A sentence with a similar pattern, which may help to unravel the above, is:
It is true, despite everything you say, that this word which this word refers to is not the same word which this word refers to.
Or, if you insist on being really correct:
It is true, despite everything you say, that this word to which this word refers is not the same word to which this word refers.
  1. The "QWERTY keyboard" gains its name from the fact that its first 6 letter keys are Q, W, E, R, T and Y. On early typewriters the keys were arranged in such a way as to minimize the clashing of the mechanical rods that carried the letters.
    Source:www.englishclub.com




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