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پنجشنبه 26 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
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Hi. The purpose of this weblog is learning all about English.So, what I want you to do is to help me to create the greatest weblog by leaving comments and giving me the topics you want to be discussed in here.(Don't forget that No one is perfect)
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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
To begin with the explanation of the topic of effective vs affective, the dictionary meaning of 'effect' is, "A phenomenon that follows and is caused by some earlier phenomenon". When used in the form of a noun, this word emphasizes the meaning of the result of something. For instance, in the sentence, "The inflation had a major effect on the economy of the country", you can infer that for something to be in effect, something else should have happened first. Even phenomena such as the greenhouse effect, photoelectric effect and events such as side effects, after effects, etc., clearly explains the usage of the word.

Now, when 'effect' is used as a verb, it renders meaning to 'effective'. How? "Act so as to bring into existence" is the meaning of the word 'effective'. "A pain-killer can be very effective in taking care of a headache". Here, the medicine is able to produce results without having the need to influence the mood or state of mind of the patient and thus, it is effective.


As aforesaid, 'affective' comes from the word 'affect', which means to alter the mental state of someone. It may also be defined as "to have an effect upon". It is usually applied as a verb in most instances in the English language. The example, "The sales person was brilliantly affective in luring the customer to buy his products", shows that the sales person was able to influence the thinking of the customer so that he acts in a certain way and which was to buy his products. Therefore, the salesperson was an affective person.

Here are some questions which would help you grasp the subject of effective vs affective.
Now take this quiz:
1."The mosquito spray was not so ............ as it was advertised to be!"

2."The words of his mother were .............. enough to change his behavior towards life."

3."How ............. would be your business proposal for our company this year?"

4."The painting was so .............. on his mind that he couldn't just help thinking about it the whole day!"

Answers:
1.Effective
2.Affective
3.Effective
4.Affective




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Like, love, hate and prefer

The verbs like, love, hate and prefer can be followed by both infinitives and gerunds. There is usually no difference of meaning.

I hate working late in the evening. OR I hate to work late in the evening.
I don’t do anything on Sundays. I like staying / to stay in bed.

After would like, would prefer, would hate and would love, infinitives are most often used.

I would like to tell you something. (NOT I would like telling you something.)

Notes

After verbs expressing likes and dislikes the gerund is used for making general statements and the infinitive for making statements about particular occasions.

Compare:

Susan likes painting. (= Susan likes painting as an art.)
Susan likes to paint this scenery.
John likes playing tennis. (General statement)
Would you like to play tennis this evening? (Particular occasion)

See, watch and hear

After these verbs an -ing form suggests that one pays attention to events or actions that are already going on. Infinitives are used to refer to complete actions or events which are seen or heard from beginning to the end.

As I passed his house, I heard him singing a lovely a song.
I once heard him sing all my favorite songs.

In British English, like + -ing form is mostly used to talk about enjoyment, and like + infinitive to talk about choices. In American English like + infinitive is common in both senses.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Basically, ‘think of’ usually means ‘imagine’ whereas ‘think about’ tends to mean something closer to ‘consider’, so the differences would arise in certain contexts. For example, if I say I’m thinking of a tropical beach, please don’t interrupt me! I mean I’m imagining it or daydreaming about it. However, a sentence like ‘they’re thinking about whether to agree to the sale,’ means they’re considering the sale. In these cases, it’s just natural usage patterns that tend to favour one form over another.

But when we are talking about people, we often tend to use them both in a similar way: For example, if my friend had an accident and went to hospital, I might send a card and some flowers with a message which could either read: ‘I’m thinking of you,’ or ‘I’m thinking about you’, and the meaning wouldn’t be significantly different.

Another example to better clarify the difference: As the directing manager, I promise that I shall give a hundred thousand pounds to the person that can think of (= invent/make up) an idea how to get out of the situation we have found ourselves, an idea that we can all think about (= consider).




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Aren’t I?

The question tag for I am is aren’t I, not amn’t I.

I am late, aren’t I? (NOT I am late, amn’t I?)

Imperative sentences

The question tag for imperative sentences are will you/ won’t you/ can you
/ can’t you/ would you / could you.

Come here, will you? 
Open the windows, would you?
Keep quiet, can’t you?
Shut up, won’t you?

The question tag for a negative imperative is will you?

Don’t forget, will you?

Let’s

After let’s… we use shall we?

Let’s go for a walk, shall we?

Sentences containing negative words like hardly, never, no, nobody and little are followed by non-negative tags.

You never call me, do you? (NOT …don’t you?)
He is no good, is he? (NOT …isn’t he?)
I have hardly ever met her, have I?

In question tags referring to nothing and everything we use it.

Everything is ok, isn’t it? (NOT …isn’t everything?)
Nothing can happen, can it? (NOT …can nothing?)

In question tags referring to nobody, somebody, everybody etc., we use they.

Nobody came, did they? (NOT …did nobody?)
Somebody wanted a drink, didn’t they?

After principal verb have, question tags with have and do are often both possible. Note that do is more common in American English.

They have a farm house, haven’t / don’t they?
He had a bad headache, hadn’t/didn’t he?

Notes

In sentences with question tags, pronoun subjects and auxiliary verbs are often left out.

Nice day, isn’t it. (More natural than ‘It’s a nice day, isn’t it?)




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Here are some useful word formation that might help you to know the meaning and use of them...Wink

-ENCE noun maker;makes nouns from adjevtive with -ent
EXAMPLE:Your book is different from mine.
there is a difference between our book.

-AGE act,condition or result
EXAMPLE:we could not store the food in our house.
There was no food storage in the house.

-PHILO- loving,liking
EXAMPLE:John loves to search for wisdom and knowledge.
He loves philosophy.


out- be superior;do more than
EXAMPLE:Mary lived longer than her husband.
she outlived her husband.


-IAN/EAN born or living in;believing in
EXAMPLE:England and France are in Europe.
They are European countries.


-IZE (verb)to cause to be or to become
EXAMPLE:They gave the authority to Jim to sell the house.
They authorized Jim to sell house.



-ous having;full of
EXAMPLE:There is danger in that job.
It is dangerous job.



-IT (NOUN)a state or quality
-TY 
EXAMPLE:Jim is able to solve the problem.
He has the ability to solve the problem.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Can we use people as our pet peeves? Can we say "he's my pet peeve"? If no, how is it possible to say "A couple of my pet peeves are people who blow smoke in my face"?

There's a subtle difference. You don't dislike the people -- you dislike their actions. It's the blowing of the smoke which bothers you, not the people.

The same person having a conversation with you on the street about the weather is no longer a "pet peeve" -- until they start interrupting you. Being interrupted is a pet peeve.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Experience can be an uncountable noun. You use it when you're talking about knowledge or skill which is obtained from doing, seeing or feeling things.

For example: Do you have any experience of working internationally?

Experience(s) can be a countable noun. You use it when you are talking about a particular incident or incidents that affect you.

For example: It was interesting hearing about his experiences during the war.

Experience can also be a verb. It means something that happens to you, or something you feel.

For example: When I first moved to Germany I experienced a lot of problems.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Definition

What is an inversion? In general, an "inversion" is a changed order of things. If X usually comes before Y, the inverted order will be Y first, then X. When looking at the grammar of the English language we see inversions for instance in the normal order of the subject and the verb in a sentence. To explain what an inversion is in English, first think of a simple sentence like: "Graffiti is ugly." In sentences like this the subject (graffiti) must come before the verb (is). This is the normal order. The most common example of the inverted order of the subject and the verb is seen in questions such as: "Is graffiti ugly?" The English language often uses this kind of inversion to make a question, but this is not the only time that the normal order of the subject and the verb in a sentence is inverted.

Inversion also happens in conditional sentences and for emphasis.

Examples

No-one should enter this room under/in any circumstances.
Under/In no circumstances should anyone enter this room.

She at no time told me who she was/She didn’t tell me who she was at any time.
At no time did she tell me who she was.

I have rarely seen such a beautiful butterfly.
Rarely have I seen such a beautiful butterfly.

I have never heard such a stupid thing.
Never have I heard such a stupid thing.

I did not witness the robbery, either.
Neither/Nor did I witness the robbery.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Text messages,chat room messages and sometime emails can be written using the smallest number of letters possible.Pronouns,prepositions and articles may be omitted and abbreviations are widely used.These are some examples of how words might be shown in a message:

2DAY today
2MORO tomorrow
2NITE tonight
ASAP as soon as possible
ATB all the best
B4 before
B4N bye for now
BBL be back later
BTW by the way
CUL8R see you later
F2F face to face
GR8 great
HAND have a nice day
IMHO in my humble opinion
KIT keep in touch
LOL lots of love/luck/laughing out loud message
MYOB mind your own business
NO1 no one
PCM please call me
PLS please
SOM1 someone
THX thanks
WAN2 want to
WKND weekend
X kiss
XLNT excellent




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Acrostic poems are poems where the first letter of each line comes from a word or phrase.

MY SON

My aim in life was to go far
Yet here I am a fading star
So in my stead, my son goes on
Over the rainbow he has gone
Now I'm sure that he's the one.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Above board = If a situation or business is described as above board, it is open,
honest and legal.
"There are no secret negotiations. Our dealings have always been
above board."

Barefaced liar= Someone who lies easily, with a total lack of shame, is called a
barefaced liar.
"That barefaced liar stole my watch and said he'd found it!"

Bend the truth= If you bend the truth, you say something that is not entirely true.
"OK, I bent the truth a bit; I told him it was my natural colour,
but I didn't say that my hairdresser helped me to keep it natural!"

The benefit of the doubt =If you give somebody the benefit of the doubt, you choose to
believe that the person is innocent, honest or telling the truth, because
there is no evidence to the contrary.
"Although he found it hard to believe Tom's explanation, the teacher
decided to give him the benefit of the doubt."

Catch someone red-handed =If a person is caught red-handed, they are caught while they are doing
something wrong or illegal.
"The boy was caught red-handed stealing a CD in a shop."

Cook the books = A person who cooks the books is one who changes the facts or figures
in their financial accounts, often in order to steal money.
"The actor discovered after a while that his agent was cooking the books."

Crooked as a dog's hind leg = To say that someone is as crooked as a dog's hind leg means
that they are very dishonest indeed.
"He can't be trusted - he's as crooked as a dog's hind leg




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Comic is the normal adjective for artistic comedy.
comic opera/technique/actor, etc.

Comical means 'funny' or sometimes 'silly'.
comical expression
You look comical in those suits.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
A key factor to remember about 'will' is that when we talk about the future we cannot always use 'will' and that when we use 'will' we are not always talking about the future.

In these examples 'will' is clearly referring to the future.

•I'll probably visit Sue Kay when I go to Oxford.
•If I see her, I'll tell her about it.
•Next year she'll be 42. Or so she says.

However, in these examples 'will' is referring to events happening at the present.

•My car won't start.
•I'll answer that.
•Will you have another cup of tea?

When we use 'will' referring to the present, the idea being expressed is usually one of 'showing willingness' or 'will power'.

•My baby won't stop crying. I've tried everything and I'm really exhausted.
•I am the boss. You will do as I say.
•I need quiet to write this but he will keep on talking to me. I wish he would leave me alone.

Use 'will' for requests, orders, invitations and offers.

•Will you help me?
•Will you please sit down?
•Will you have some cake?
•I'll help you.

Use 'will' for promises and threats.

•I'll do it at once. I'll phone him immediately.
•I'll remember this. I'll get my own back some day.

Use 'will' for insistence.

•He will insist on smoking cigars during the meeting and it makes me ill.
•He won't listen to reason.

Use 'will' for habit.

•A cat will always find a warm place to sleep.
•My car won't go any faster than this.

Use 'will' for deduction.

•The phone's ringing. That will be Mark.
•I expect he'll want us to start without him.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
Alliteration is the use of the same consonant sounds in words that are near each other. It is the sound, not the letter, that is important: therefore ‘candy’ and ‘Cindy’ do not alliterate, but ‘cool’ and ‘kids’ do.

Alliteration Examples:

Betty Botter bought some butter,
but, she said, the butter’s bitter;
if I put it in my batter
it will make my batter bitter,
but a bit of better butter
will make my batter better.
So she bought a bit of butter
better than her bitter butter,
and she put it in her batter
and the batter was not bitter.
So ’twas better Betty Botter
bought a bit of better butter.




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شنبه 28 مرداد 1391 :: نویسنده : علیرضا صبری
nor (conjunction) nor is always used in the negative, usually before the second or last of a set of negative possibilities, we use it after 'neither'.

For example:-

He drinks neither wine nor beer.

or (conjunction) or is used to connect different possibilities.

For example:-

Is it Tuesday or Wednesday today?

!Note - If you don't use "neither" you can use "or".

For example:-

He doesn't drink wine or beer.




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